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About MQA

September 07, 2020 30 Comments

About MQA

By Bob Stuart, Keith Howard
介紹
數字音響設備,特別是自CD在主要音響市場其質量足以記錄,傳輸和重放高質量的聲音-但這樣16位/44.1 kHz數字音響技術沒有達到它所承諾的完美。AD模數轉換器和DA數模轉換器的性能,過大的抖動以及對需求的了解不足正確使用dither都在其中發揮了作用,但是即使這些問題已解決,反對聲音繼續聲稱數字音響存在“錯誤”,如16位/44.1 kHz和當時流行的16位/ 48 kHz系統。
儘管採樣率或比特深度有所提高,“Hi-Res”串流音響現在已得到廣泛應用,儘管不是普遍接受,但它提供了更好的聲音質量,但這樣做卻付出了巨大的編碼效率。24位/88.2 kHz錄製所需的數據速率是16位/44.1 kHz替代格式的三倍,並且該比率進一步提高, 由於DXD的採樣率再次翻倍至176.4 kHz和352.8 kHz,因此倍數為2。儘管聲音質量的逐步提高是值得歡迎的,但它卻對數據速率和存儲容量,僅僅提高采樣率也無法正面解決44.1 kHz和48 kHz的原因採樣率強加了主觀限制,取而代之的是,MQA採樣率已成為解決方案的。
便利與質量
MQA只是前所未有的以高采樣率運行的記錄/重放技術嗎?可能被譽為發燒友的突破,但不會對音質產生任何影響。廣泛來自DAP移動設備和Tidal串流服務。圖5顯示了不同音頻載體的概念質量和方便性的圖表按時間順序排列。Tidal MQA串流聲音質量已逐漸被便利性是經驗豐富的音樂消費中更重要的因素。
MQA通過提供比所提供的更好的聲音消除了便利性和質量之間的折衷通過當前的24位/ 96 kHz或24位/ 192 kHz記錄以顯著降低的數據速率進行錄製。以平均〜1 Mbps的速率流式傳輸–低於CD的1.411 Mbps的速率–或通過任何24位,44.1或48回放配備了MQA解碼器的kHz設備.
 
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高性能無損壓縮可以通過將每個通道的數據速率降低到2.9 Mbps來改善情況,節省了37%,但這仍然效率低下,而且過高,不足以成為在線音樂服務流媒體的理想選擇。MQA的目標是精確地傳遞Fig.13橙色三角形的內容,並且具有更高的精確度,同時避免了轉換器中的時間模糊或噪聲調製。要實現此目標,MQA要“超越無損”在某種意義上說,它的核心是認識到“無損”(通常使用該術語)不是最終擔保人。聲音質量,因為它不包含A / D和D / A轉換,音量控制等。
可以無損傳送16位/44.1 kHz數字文件,但這不能確保它達到無可指責的端到端音質。傳統的高分辨率數字也是如此,因為儘管它可能優於16位/44.1 kHz,但它並沒有被指定為匹配人類聽力的時域敏銳度。因此,即使MQA的核心數字路徑是由解碼器確定並確認的無損逐位目標是捕獲並交付我們所需要的一切可以聽到,而沒有傳統採樣的固有模糊,也沒有轉換器量化的不確定性,並將未經修改的母帶工作室中聽到的模擬聲音傳達給最終用戶。它以一種更深刻,更相關的方式“無損”。
音樂摺紙 – “Music Origami”
我們將MQA將高采樣率信號降低到Fs = 44.1 kHz或48 kHz的過程稱為“音樂”- Music Fold摺紙”,沿用了日本的紙張折疊技術。圖14至圖16顯示了它對於192 kHz信號源的工作方式。
 
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儘管此處以二維方式描述了該過程,但實際上它是一個三維結構。 第一個“折疊”First Fold(圖13)將傳輸速率從192 kHz降低到96 kHz,第二個(圖14)從96 kHz到48 kHz,折疊過程沒有進行濾波,並且固有的採樣率和位深度保持不變。在折疊時,每個生成的樣本都傳達了更多的信息。
 
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在MQA詞典中,這是第一個折疊流程稱為“封裝”。該過程是可分級擴展的,因此,如果源是例如352.8 kHz的文件,則我們使用三倍達到44.1 kHz的最終傳輸速率。類似地,如果源只有96 kHz,則我們從圖14的無損過程。MQA也是可分級擴展的,因此每種類型的折疊都可以使用一個八度音階更高以啟用雙速傳輸選項。
如圖14和15所示,第二折能夠無損,因為原始的模擬信號(藍色軌跡),大部分可用24位編碼的動態範圍被噪聲。因此,第二折處理使用埋藏數據技術可逆地隱藏了24個以上的信號信息低於24 kHz的本底噪聲內的kHz。主要是由於環境噪聲和麥克風自噪聲(加上模擬大師),很少有唱片能達到超過16位動態範圍的水平。只能聽到比噪聲水平低大約10dB的噪聲內信號(請參見圖13中的橄欖曲線),並且隨之而來的是,第19至24位不攜帶有用的信息。
 
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這些圖沒有傳達出MQA使用“幕後”實現這一目標的一系列新穎過程折疊和無損展開隨後由解碼器應用。例如,使用了適合環境和音樂信號統計的新穎採樣內核,適用於人類聽眾並提供緊密的時間分辨率,而分數位無損編碼增加分辨率。
MQA還利用其端到端架構在解碼器中啟用減法抖動技術,以確保與其他格式不同,噪聲調製為零。與有損編解碼器不同,MQA永遠不會干擾音樂信號,再加上它在整個音樂作品中保持精確且恆定的特性。
PlayBack
如果存在MQA解碼器,則將還原這兩個折疊過程以恢復為24位/ 192具有端到端頻率和脈衝響應的kHz輸出已經在圖1中顯示。解碼器以位精度重建饋送到D / A轉換器的信號,從而獲得與 母帶工作室;它認證並指示此結果。如果不存在解碼器,則文件將以44.1 kHz或48 kHz的速度重放,從而提供向後兼容性。如果傳輸路徑只能通過16位(而不是24位),則MQA解碼器可以重建基帶 (圖10中的區域A)以及B(和C)的有損版本,聽起來非常接近高分辨率原圖和 比CD重放好得多。同樣,如果重播設備無法獲得最高的採樣率,則可以停止展開過程解碼器優化時間和頻率響應。
MQA滿足了兩個傳統上不兼容的需求:質量和便利性。
大大超過了當前的高分辨率數字格式,但是它不需要高數據速率,也不需要取消不擁有解碼器用戶的權利。只需要一種發行格式即可覆蓋重播範圍可能性,並且MQA資料可以像常規PCM一樣進行分發:流化,以文件形式提供
下載,甚至放在CD或其他光盤上。MQA已經向許多世界領先的錄音工程師,音樂製作人和唱片公司進行了演示。公司,並受到了熱烈歡迎。它代表了數字音頻的未來而廣受讚譽。



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